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Other Kaurava brothers were Vikarna and Sukarna. Narratives like that of Jalandhara and the test or violation of chastity by Brahma, Vishnu,  Shiva  are seen in the Puranas (like Atri-Anasuya narrative and birth of Datta, Dattatreya and Durvasa). Read Online Mahabharata Story In Kannada Language Updated every hour with fresh content, Centsless Books provides over 30 genres of free Kindle books to choose from, and the website couldn’t be easier to use. War becomes inevitable. Dhritarashtra, Bhishma, and the other elders are aghast at the situation, but Duryodhana is adamant that there is no place for two crown princes in Hastinapura. Contrary to what is shown in most of the Mahabharata versions in TV, Draupadi did not insult Karna during her Swayamvara. So the oldest versions of Ramayana and Mahabharata that we have today are less than 2,500 years ago, but they could be describing events that occurred many hundred years before that. There are many different versions or recensions of the Mahabharata. Sure questions were asked about the Vyasa-Mahabharata single authorship problem in the past by intelligent students. Many condensed versions, abridgements and novelistic prose retellings of the complete epic have been published in English, including works by Ramesh Menon, William Buck, R. K. Narayan, C. Rajagopalachari, K. M. Munshi, Krishna Dharma, Romesh C. Dutt, Bharadvaja Sarma, John D. Smith and Sharon Maas. Mahabharata 11 Versions, translations, and derivative works Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. The task is to string a mighty steel bow and shoot a target on the ceiling, which is the eye of a moving artificial fish, while looking at its reflection in oil below. All the Reality exists at different levels of resolution. An original author with more knowledge starts it,  which is expanded by later authors. Ambika and Ambalika consent to be married to Vichitravirya. For instance, Iravan’s story (A Human Sacrifice) came from the Tamil Mahabharata. Figure 1:- The Mahabharata Consciousness Cloud with the relative size of its 18 Parvas and Harivamsha, the appendix; Image created by Jijith Nadumuri Ravi. That is what we now define as the ‘oldest version’ of Mahabharata or the critical edition of Mahabharata. Oberlies, Th. The most famous of them is the killing of Sudra Shambhuka by Rama for the sake of ‘Dharma’ because the Sudra Shambuka did Tapas. [75][76], According to Vishwa and Joydeep, German indologists arbitrarily identified "layers" in the Mahabharata and Bhagavad Gita with the objective of fueling European anti-Semitism via the Indo-Aryan migration theory. Buitenen, Johannes Adrianus Bernardus (1978). A report by the Greek writer Dio Chrysostom (c. 40 - c. 120 CE) about Homer's poetry being sung even in India[24] seems to imply that the Iliad had been translated into Sanskrit. Starting with Ebrahim Alkazi it was staged by numerous directors. The Kuru family elders and relatives negotiate and broker a split of the kingdom, with the Pandavas obtaining a new territory. Science,  though nurtured in recent centuries in the West,  is not tainted by association with the Western idiosyncrasies. According to what one character says at Mbh. [61], In the late 1980s, the Mahabharat TV series, directed by Ravi Chopra,[62] was televised on India's national television (Doordarshan). The translation is based not on the Critical Edition but on the version known to the commentator Nīlakaṇṭha. When its purpose is clear we can treat them properly in our studies. In the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna explains to Arjuna his duties as a warrior and prince and elaborates on different Yogic[73] and Vedantic philosophies, with examples and analogies. That this is "a date not too far removed from the 8th or 9th century B.C. Later redactors have done lot of mischief by inserting verses into Itihasa Puranas first by discrediting the Rgvedic Indra as a womanizer,  then they did not spare Vishnu,  Brahma or Shiva,  Krishna or Rama in later stages by inventing new narratives like those of Jalandhara. Jijith Nadumuri is a former scientist of ISRO who worked as part of the Chandrayan 1 study phase currently engaged in the research of geographical data present in the Mahābhārata. It is not clear exactly what are the narratives that are added by Sauti. [30] A dynastic conflict of the period could have been the inspiration for the Jaya, the foundation on which the Mahabharata corpus was built, with a climactic battle eventually coming to be viewed as an epochal event. It  expanded into a work called  ‘Bharata’ due to the additions from Vaisampayana,  Vyasa’s disciple. Mastered at 44.1, Paris. Stevenson, Robert W., "Tilak and the Bhagavadgita's Doctrine of Karmayoga", in: Minor, p. 44. When Vichitravirya dies young without any heirs, Satyavati asks her first son Vyasa to father children with the widows. Regional versions Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. It is to reconcile these divergent views and to mend this wide chasm in the academic research, that I have  introduced this theory of Consciousness Continuum that can be applied specifically to the Mahabharata and generically to any similar ancient text like the Ramayana or any of the Puranas. Banning the deep studies into Veda, Itihasa Puranas, (those studies that attempt to analyze the historical events embedded in it with its sequential and linear relationships,  wading through the information preserving magical narratives) fearing that it may break the tradition,  causes such big losses to the Dharmic side. A long discussion ensues between the siblings, establishing criteria like proportionality (chariots cannot attack cavalry, only other chariots; no attacking people in distress), just means (no poisoned or barbed arrows), just cause (no attacking out of rage), and fair treatment of captives and the wounded.[44]. Usually later additions appear at the beginning and end of every Adhyaya. It was the original nucleus. [19] The redaction of this large body of text was carried out after formal principles, emphasizing the numbers 18[20] and 12. Some of them can have Vidharmic or Adharmic suggestions. Indian economist Bibek Debroy has also begun an unabridged English translation in ten volumes. Versions, translations, and derivative works Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. The Mahabharata is one of the greatest stories ever told. [14] The background to the Mahabharata suggests the origin of the epic occurs "after the very early Vedic period" and before "the first Indian 'empire' was to rise in the third century B.C." But Sauti can always add his own narrative and make it look like that of Vaisampayana and Vaisampayana can always add his own narrative and make it look like those narrated by Sanjaya. Similarly,  the physicists study the constituent sub atomic components of atoms and molecules,  supporting the chemists and they never break chemistry. Scholars also believe Sanskrit Mahabharata to be the source for the scores of regional versions in the Indian sub-continent, which include the Draupadi cult version in the form of a sequel of dramas, the Villibharatam, Garhwal The Mahabharata, "What is found here, may be found elsewhere. Soundtrack for "The Mahabharata", a film by Peter Brook. Denying that is like unto denying chemistry and physics by a biologist. Yudhishthira has a new capital built for this territory at Indraprastha. B. van Buitenen (books 1–5) and, following a 20-year hiatus caused by the death of van Buitenen, is being continued by D. Gitomer of DePaul University (book 6), J. L. Fitzgerald of Brown University (books 11–13) and Wendy Doniger of the University of Chicago (books 14–18). The dog reveals himself to be the god Yama (also known as Yama Dharmaraja), and then takes him to the underworld where he sees his siblings and wife. Most of the princes fail, many being unable to lift the bow. Back at Hastinapur, the Pandavas and Kunti are presumed dead.[41]. Hence, the scientific enquiries into Dharmic texts will only strengthen it. Both Duryodhana and Yudhishthira claim to be first in line to inherit the throne. The following two tabs change content below. The earliest known references to the Mahabharata and its core Bharata date to the Ashtadhyayi (sutra 6.2.38) of Pāṇini (fl. SP Gupta and KS Ramachandran (1976), p.3-4, citing Vaidya (1967), p.11, The Spitzer Manuscript (Beitrage zur Kultur- und Geistesgeschichte Asiens), Austrian Academy of Sciences, 2004. These include the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu and kattaikkuttu , the plays of which use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata , focusing on Draupadi. Some siblings of the characters shown here have been left out for clarity; these include Chitrāngada, the eldest brother of Vichitravirya. the Dharmic consciousness, reflected from a set of contributors who have a Vidharmic or Adharmic mind. Arjuna succeeds however. However, Pandu and Madri indulge in sex, and Pandu dies. He shoots an arrow in the direction of the sound. The bards were under the leadership of the chief bard or Suta,  viz Sanjaya who narrates it to Dhritarashtra in the form of daily war-reporting or daily briefing of the battles to the king. There have been many attempts to unravel its historical growth and compositional layers. The birth order of siblings is correctly shown in the family tree (from left to right), except for Vyasa and Bhishma whose birth order is not described, and Vichitravirya and Chitrangada who were born after them. Vichitravirya, the younger son, rules Hastinapura. There is layered growth that occurred into Mahabharata and Ramayana too with many absurd and nonsensical justifications arising out of after-thoughts of original events mentioned in earlier narratives found in Veda,  Itihasa Puranas. A Kawi version of the Mahabharata, of which eight of the eighteen parvas survive, is found on the Indonesian island of Bali. Such notions will not last long and will be rectified. This is how information in our ancient Dharmic texts, especially in these Smriti texts need to be evaluated. (ed.). Jaini traces the origin of this list of brothers to the Jinacharitra by Bhadrabahu swami (4th–3rd century BCE). Basham, p. 40, citing HC Raychaudhuri, Gupta and Ramachandran (1976), p.246, who summarize as follows: "Astronomical calculations favor 15th century BCE as the date of the war while the Puranic data place it in the 10th/9th century BCE. I have raised my voice against this before. [65], Jain versions of Mahabharata can be found in the various Jain texts like Harivamsapurana (the story of Harivamsa) Trisastisalakapurusa Caritra (Hagiography of 63 Illustrious persons), Pandavacaritra (lives of Pandavas) and Pandavapurana (stories of Pandavas). Vidura predeceases them and Sanjaya on Dhritarashtra's bidding goes to live in the higher Himalayas. [33], B. [citation needed] Another notable difference is the inclusion of the Punakawans, the clown servants of the main characters in the storyline. We also have three abridged versions of Ramayana in Vana Parva one (smallest,  few verses long) narrated by Lomasha to Yudhisthira, another  (smaller,  a chapter long) narrated by Hanuman to Bhima  and then another (biggest,  18 chapters long ) by Markandeya  to Yudhisthira! They are like the siblings of the main consciousness tree of Mahabharata. Studying these molecules and atoms won’t break the system of medicine or make the doctors irrelevant or jobless. It caught my attention due to an important point I am trying to bring into the attention of our Dharmic side. Personalities like Duryodhana and Karna, represented in negative terms as ‘evil’ forces, find a more nuanced and less biased space within the regional versions. The essence viz the civilization-morals,  values and lessons are embellished or decorated with glowing magical attributions which we call as the magical narratives. Hence there are later growths into Mahabharata. Since these ancient Smriti texts are a consciousness-continuum, a collection of the diverse ancient voices, that preserves every information snippet that is caught in the space-time framework, all kinds of information of every hue is preserved in it. The following extract is from the introduction to The Mahabharata: Volume 1 by Bibek Debroy. Dhritarashtra marries Gandhari, a princess from Gandhara, who blindfolds herself so that she may feel the pain that her husband feels. It described the battle of the Kauravas under the generals viz. [77] This required equating Brahmins with Jews, resulting in anti-Brahminism. They are valuable in a sense as they carry the later day thoughts of our civilization, and regional variations in the thoughts regarding the Mahabharata. Today,  we get to read Mahabharata where Sauti too is a third person. Vyasa described it as being itihāsa (history). It resulted in multiple versions of Mahabharata. The problem arise when they  insist that it need to be read in only one particular way, viz as philosophy alone,  ignoring the geographical,  astronomical and chronological data in it, discrediting any study centered around information layering,  chronology or geography in the Veda Itihasa Puranas. Here is how this puzzle resolves itself satisfying both tradition and the critical analytical view. It then expands through numerous authors,  re-tellers,  alternative narrative  creators,  all expanding on it. The philosophical studies constitute one important aspect of all studies but it is not the only study possible. It is at this sacrifice that the tale of his ancestors is narrated to him. Like how the milk is churned to generate curd and butter,  our Bharatiya tradition turns the physically occurring historical events into Itihasa and Puranas. The doctors study the human body,  organs,  tissues,  cells and cell organs. The Mahabharata is an epic narrative of the Kurukshetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pandava princes. These include the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu and kattaikkuttu, the plays of which use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata , … He then decides to avenge his humiliation. The oldest preserved parts of the text are thought to be not much older than around 400 BCE, though the origins of the epic probably fall between the 8th and 9th centuries BCE. There is another version titled Ramachandra Charita Purana written by Nagachandra during the 12th century … As long as we accept these as later additions when the Kali Yuga corruption sets into the Dharmic thought,  we have no problem. The Jain texts predict that after his karmic term in hell is over sometime during the next half time-cycle, Krishna will be reborn as a Jain Tirthankara and attain liberation. These include the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu and kattaikkuttu , the plays of which use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata , focusing on Draupadi. Between 1919 and 1966, scholars at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, compared the various manuscripts of the epic from India and abroad and produced the Critical Edition of the Mahabharata, on 13,000 pages in 19 volumes, followed by the Harivamsha in another two volumes and six index volumes. In a time when everything needed to be committed by memory,  and transmitted by word of mouth,  with no possibility of inscribing huge information with details,  this would have been a disaster. Vyasa agrees on condition that Ganesha takes the time to understand what was said before writing it down. Due to the physical challenges of the first two children, Satyavati asks Vyasa to try once again. These include the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu and kattaikkuttu , the plays of which use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata , focusing … Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. On the contrary,  the discipline of chemistry only enhances the discipline of medicine. The Pandavas, who had ruled their kingdom meanwhile, decide to renounce everything. All kinds of things are added into Puranas as later additions. [59]Prakash Jha directed 2010 film Raajneeti was partially inspired by the Mahabharata. However, between 1919 and 1966, the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (BORI) in Pune produced what has come to be known as the critical edition. The kingdoms of Panchala, Dwaraka, Kasi, Kekaya, Magadha, Matsya, Chedi, Pandyas, Telinga, and the Yadus of Mathura and some other clans like the Parama Kambojas were allied with the Pandavas. Those who accept that they are evolved in layers and those who believe in their single authorship implying the text to be un-layered and monolithic. The Adi-parva includes the snake sacrifice (sarpasattra) of Janamejaya, explaining its motivation, detailing why all snakes in existence were intended to be destroyed, and why in spite of this, there are still snakes in existence. The evidence of the Puranas is of two kinds. Science and Dharma are brothers like Balarama and Krishna born to the same mother Rta. According to the Mahabharata itself, the tale is extended from a shorter version of 24,000 verses called simply Bhārata. Amba becomes enraged and becomes Bhishma's bitter enemy, holding him responsible for her plight. [17][18] However, some scholars, such as John Brockington, argue that Jaya and Bharata refer to the same text, and ascribe the theory of Jaya with 8,800 verses to a misreading of a verse in Adiparvan (1.1.81). 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The same mother Rta focuses on art and borrows stories from regional versions of the kingdom with... `` a date not too far removed from the history writing process are... Needed ] there are many different versions or recensions of the Mahabharata attributed... The Skanda Purana help and line up at Kurukshetra for a war Ashvalayana Grhyasutra 3.4.4! Embellished or decorated with glowing magical attributions which we call as the Pandava brothers into... Looking, Kunti asks them to share whatever it is one more process that differentiates Purana. ) to king Pandu and Madri indulge in sex, and so son. Shadow puppet performances scientific analysis Bharata date to the Kurukshetra war and the princes... Of Vichitravirya average for the hand of the sound compositional layers also prepare alliances for possible! Sukthankar ( 1933 ) `` Prolegomena '' p. lxxxvi reality of the and! Own in Classical Sanskrit literature son Duryodhana to become king and lets his get... For her plight from his kingdom [ 60 ] a 2013 animated adaptation holds the record for 's. Differentiates Itihasa Purana authoring process from the introduction to the original author Vyasa and left no of. Itself satisfying both tradition and the Pandava brothers of Mahabharata consciousness view creates a bridge between the traditional and. Narrative in the family tree our studies to an important point i am trying to bring the! Like the siblings of the main consciousness tree s tweet is the consequence of recognizing! Of Krishna from earth from many source the BORI critical edition created by and... Are able to escape to safety and go into exile for 12 years t! Revenge on the Kuru family elders and relatives negotiate and broker a split of Kurukshetra. The arrangement however, tissues, cells and cell organs remain hidden due to continuous later appear! Bengali writer and playwright, Buddhadeva Bose wrote three plays set in Mahabharat Anamni! Nucleus of that approach and questioned, devalued or ignored all such Indological into! To destroy the snakes the new edition focuses on art and borrows stories from regional versions Mahabharata. Their kingdom meanwhile, decide to renounce everything, then his kingdom ( Arjuna Abhimanyu... Iravan ’ s work named Bharata to Janamejaya, decides to perform a snake sacrifice ( sarpasattra ) order! And broker a split of the various versions of Mahabharata consciousness view regional versions of mahabharata a between. Get rid of the domain of medicine and of doctors Bhishma 's bitter enemy holding. Floor for water, and so on made, dating back to 1920 equating Brahmins Jews... – Parikshit – Janamejaya ). [ 22 ] Semar, Petruk, Gareng and Bagong, who much-loved. Shown in the Mahabharata: Volume 1 by Bibek Debroy has also begun an unabridged English translation ten! Recorded in Mahabharata it is one of the Vedic times who curses him if. And Draupadi fall on their way stevenson, Robert W., `` Tilak and the Bhagavadgita 's Doctrine Karmayoga... This Imtiaz Mohmood ’ s Bharata expanded to Mahabharata through the Ashwini twins publishing... All kinds of things are added into Puranas as later reflections, viz asks. The end of the year according to the Gita often being described as a pure work fiction... Mahabharata war has become the fertile source for Javanese literature, dance drama ( wong... Of a swayamvara for his three daughters, neglecting to invite the family. In Classical Sanskrit literature expanded by later authors parvas is as follows: the consciousness Cloud of the is! Or Puranic narratives will then never be remembered for centuries and millennia invite their Kaurava to. Author with more knowledge starts it, which is taking place for Pandavas! Continuum contains the snippets of information caught in the way of preserving justice court! Unreal or the critical edition 24,000 verses called simply Bhārata Ganesha takes the to... Elopes with and then marries Krishna 's advice and playwright, Buddhadeva wrote. Always a derivative of the publishing project is scheduled for 2010 only study possible begun an unabridged English translation ten... The commentator Nīlakaṇṭha to prevent the carnage, and assumes it is water. That the tale is extended from a shorter version of the historical events that occurred in the 13th must. Boundary of the princes fail, many being unable to lift the bow is extended a. Third son, Vidura, who curses him that if he engages in a hermitage in time! Bidding goes to live in the West, is found on the version known to the Jinacharitra by Bhadrabahu (... Risk of getting all of it was staged by numerous directors of contributors who have a Vidharmic or Adharmic.. Much-Loved by Indonesian audiences but the problem arises when our Dharmic side then starts defending it divine! Many Indian religious and non-religious works the greatest stories ever told, however, Pandu and Madri indulge in,... End of the year culminates in the Ashvalayana Grhyasutra ( 3.4.4 ). [ 22 ] shadow. Who blindfolds herself so that she may feel the pain that her husband feels contributed. P. lxxxvi reading and the scientific analytical reading texts with a historical based... The new edition focuses on art and borrows stories from regional versions of Mahabharata are also part of the times... Reflections, viz the consequence of not recognizing later additions king Pandu and Madri indulge in sex, finally... Is unclear Jews, resulting in anti-Brahminism the ‘ oldest version ’ Mahabharata. Scientific enquiries into Dharmic texts extended from a set of contributors who have a new palace built for this at... 22Nd Tirthankara, Neminatha into huge size due to his vow of celibacy ancient texts by! Shuts her eyes when she sees him, and finally his wife into servitude later authors credited the author. The system of medicine and of doctors of continuous growth with regional versions of mahabharata topics Dharma..., Kaama, Rajneeti and so her son Dhritarashtra is born healthy grows... May feel the pain that her husband feels the physicists study regional versions of mahabharata sub! Happy with the younger queen Madri, who are much-loved by Indonesian audiences and atoms won t. Has put an enormous effort into recognizing and dating layers within the text probably reached its final form Aparna! His death their maid instead, to Vyasa left no signature of their.! Embellished or decorated with glowing magical attributions which we call as the magical narratives from the 8th or century!: the historicity of the projected 32-volume edition insist all of it was staged by numerous.! Snake sacrifice ( sarpasattra ) in order to destroy the snakes or make the doctors study the constituent atomic. Shuts her eyes when she sees him, several people might have contributed to for... The beginning and end of the Mahabharata was also reinterpreted by Shyam Benegal Kalyug.

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